Types of Employees
Permanent Employees Full and Part-Time
These are the most common type of employee. Permanent employees have the full set of employment rights and responsibilities.
Employees have to meet certain criteria to qualify for some employment entitlements, such as parental leave, parental leave payments, annual holidays, sick leave and bereavement leave. There may be small differences between full-time or part-time employees because of their work patterns.
Part-Time and Full-Time Employees
Whether you’re considered to be part-time or full-time depends on how many hours you have to work. Employment legislation doesn’t define what full-time or part-time work is, but full-time work is often considered to be around 35 to 40 hours a week. For statistical purposes, Statistics New Zealand defines full-time as working 30 hours or more per week. You have exactly the same employment rights and responsibilities if you’re a part-time or full-time employee.
A full-time permanent employee might be someone working 9am to 5pm, five days a week. An example of a part-time permanent employee is someone who regularly works the same 3 days a week for eight hours each day, for a total of 24 hours a week.
Fixed-Term Employees Full and Part-Time
A fixed-term (temporary) employee’s employment will end on a specified date or when a particular event occurs. A fixed-term employee might be someone who is brought in to replace another employee on parental leave, to cover a seasonal peak or to complete a project.
There must be a genuine reason based on reasonable grounds for the fixed term and the employee must be told about this reason. A 2019 court case has clarified this arrangement as follows.
Fixed term employment can only happen if:
The parties agree
The employment agreement says in writing the way that the employment will end
The employment agreement says in writing the reason for ending the employment in that way
Importantly, an employer must satisfy these requirements to rely upon the fixed term to bring employment to an end.
Genuine reasons (reasonably held) that the fixed term is needed
Advise the employee how the employment will end
Advise the employee why the employment is ending in that way
‘Casual employee’ isn’t defined in employment legislation, but the term is usually used to refer to a situation where the employee has no guaranteed hours of work, no regular pattern of work, and no ongoing expectation of employment. The employer doesn’t have to offer work to the employee, and the employee doesn’t have to accept work if it’s offered. The employee works as and when it suits both them and the employer. This can sometimes happen because it’s hard for the employer to predict when the work needs to be done, or when the work needs to be done quickly. Each time the employee accepts an offer of work it is treated as a new period of employment.
If you are employed to do casual work, the arrangement must be made clear in your employment agreement.
Employment rights and responsibilities also apply to casual employees, but the way in which annual holidays, sick and bereavement leave are applied can vary for these employees.
Seasonal employment is generally a type of fixed-term employment where the employment agreement says that the work will finish at the end of the season. It’s commonly used in the fruit, vegetable, fishing and meat industries, for example, in a job picking apples when they ripen, after the work is completed (when all the apples are picked) the employer doesn’t need the workers and the fixed term ends. In some situations, seasonal employment can become a rolling fixed-term employment in which the employee is re-hired at the start of every season.